Faculty Publication: Drevets et al.

November 9, 2011

Meyers, N., Fromm, S., Luckenbaugh, D. A., Drevets, W. C., & Hasler, G. (2011). Neural correlates of sleepiness induced by catecholamine depletion. Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging, 194(1), 73-78. doi: 10.1016/j.pscychresns.2011.06.015

Although extensive indirect evidence exists to suggest that the central dopaminergic system plays a significant role in the modulation of arousal, the functional effect of the dopaminergic influence on the regulation of the sleep–wake cycle remains unclear. Thirteen healthy volunteers and 15 unmedicated subjects with a history of major depressive disorder underwent catecholamine depletion (CD) using oral alpha-methyl-para-tyrosine in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover study. The main outcome measures in both sessions were sleepiness (Stanford-Sleepiness-Scale), cerebral glucose metabolism (positron emission tomography), and serum prolactin concentration. CD consistently induced clinically relevant sleepiness in both groups. The CD-induced prolactin increase significantly correlated with CD-induced sleepiness but not with CD-induced mood and anxiety symptoms. CD-induced sleepiness correlated with CD-induced increases in metabolism in the medial and orbital frontal cortex, bilateral superior temporal cortex, left insula, cingulate motor area and in the vicinity of the periaqueductal gray. This study suggests that the association between dopamine depletion and sleepiness is independent of the brain reward system and the risk for depression. The visceromotor system, the cingulate motor area, the periaqueductal gray and the caudal hypothalamus may mediate the impact of the dopaminergic system on regulation of wakefulness and sleep. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved) (journal abstract)

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Faculty Publication: Drevets, Murray, Wise

July 28, 2011

Murray, E. A., Wise, S. P., & Drevets, W. C. (2011). Localization of dysfunction in major depressive disorder: Prefrontal cortex and amygdala. Biological Psychiatry, 69(12), e43-e54. doi: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2010.09.041

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Faculty Publication: Drevets, et al.

July 15, 2011

Nugent, A. C., Bain, E. E., Thayer, J. F., Sollers, J. J., & Drevets, W. C. (2011). Sex differences in the neural correlates of autonomic arousal: A pilot PET study. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 80(3), 182-191. doi: 10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2011.03.001

Electrophysiology, behavioral, and neuroimaging studies have revealed sex-related differences in autonomic cardiac control, as reflected in measurements of heart rate variability (HRV). Imaging studies indicate that the neurobiological correlates of autonomic nervous system (ANS) function can be investigated by measuring indices of HRV during the performance of mildly strenuous motor tasks or mildly stressful cognitive tasks. In this preliminary study, fifteen male and seven female healthy subjects underwent H₂¹⁵O-positron emission tomography (PET) and electrocardiograph (ECG) recording while performing a handgrip motor task and an n-back task. Indices of HRV were calculated and correlated with regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF). We hypothesized that sex differences would be evident in brain regions known to participate in autonomic regulation: the anterior insula, the anterior cingulate cortex, the orbitofrontal cortex, and the amygdala. Our study found that associations between rCBF and parasympathetic indices differed significantly between female and male subjects in the amygdala. Females showed a positive correlation between rCBF and parasympathetic indices while males exhibited negative correlations. This differential correlation of amygdala rCBF and parasympathetic activity between males and females may reflect differences in parasympathetic/ sympathetic balance between sexes, consistent with known sexual dimorphism in the amygdala and closely related structures such as the hypothalamus. These preliminary imaging results are consistent with earlier reports of significant correlation between brain activity and HRV, and extend these findings by demonstrating prominent sex differences in the neural control of the ANS. While the generalizability of our results was limited by the small size of the study samples, the relatively robust effect size of the differences found between groups encourages further work in larger samples to characterize sex differences in the neural correlates of autonomic arousal. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved) (journal abstract)

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24% U.S. Counties Report More Deaths than Births

June 30, 2011

Last year, more people died than were born in nearly one-quarter of all U.S. counties, a new study shows.

This trend, known as natural decrease, is the result of younger people moving away, as well as decreases in fertility levels. Researchers from the Carsey Institute at the University of New Hampshire (UNH) also found that rural areas are particularly hard hit by natural population decrease, which is taking a toll on local schools, hospitals and other family services.

“Last year, 24 percent of all U.S. counties experienced natural decrease. And, for the first time in U.S. history, deaths now exceed births in an entire state,” Kenneth Johnson, senior demographer with the Carsey Institute and professor of sociology at UNH, said in a university news release.

The state to which Johnson referred was West Virginia, the study revealed. Another key study finding: more than 90 percent of U.S. counties with a natural decrease are in rural America.


Faculty Publication: Drevets et al.

June 3, 2011

Liu, X., Cannon, D. M., Akula, N., Moya, P. R., Knudsen, G. M., Arentzen, T. E., Steele, J., Laje, G., Drevets, W. C., & McMahon, F. J. (2011). A non-synonymous polymorphism in galactose mutarotase (galm) is associated with serotonin transporter binding potential in the human thalamus: Results of a genome-wide association study. [Letter]. Molecular Psychiatry, 16, 584-585. doi: 10.1038/mp.2011.1

A letter to the editor is presented regarding the result of a study of a non-synonymous polymorphism in galactose mutarotase (GALM) which is associated with serotonin transporter binding potential in the human thalamus.

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Social and Emotional Development in Children and Adolescents

May 13, 2011

The Maternal and Child Health Library releases Social and Emotional Development in Children and Adolescents Knowledge Path. A companion resource brief for families is available at this site.


Home health care patients statistics

April 27, 2011

The Division of Health Care Statistics (DHCS) and the Long-Term Care Statistics Branch (LTCSB) are pleased to announce the release of National Health Statistics Report #38: Home Health Care and Discharged Hospice Care Patients: United States, 2000 and 2007. This report can be accessed on the National Home and Hospice Care Survey (NHHCS) data products page http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nhhcs/nhhcs_products.htm; scroll down to data year 2007.

In 2007, there were 1,045,100 discharged hospice care patients. The majority of discharged patients were aged 65 or over, female, and white and most were discharged deceased. Their median length of service was 16 days and the most common primary diagnosis at admission was malignant neoplasm. Most of them had at least one type of advance care planning instrument, and about one-fourth had three or more types of these instruments.