Faculty Publication: Drevets et al.

November 9, 2011

Meyers, N., Fromm, S., Luckenbaugh, D. A., Drevets, W. C., & Hasler, G. (2011). Neural correlates of sleepiness induced by catecholamine depletion. Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging, 194(1), 73-78. doi: 10.1016/j.pscychresns.2011.06.015

Although extensive indirect evidence exists to suggest that the central dopaminergic system plays a significant role in the modulation of arousal, the functional effect of the dopaminergic influence on the regulation of the sleep–wake cycle remains unclear. Thirteen healthy volunteers and 15 unmedicated subjects with a history of major depressive disorder underwent catecholamine depletion (CD) using oral alpha-methyl-para-tyrosine in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover study. The main outcome measures in both sessions were sleepiness (Stanford-Sleepiness-Scale), cerebral glucose metabolism (positron emission tomography), and serum prolactin concentration. CD consistently induced clinically relevant sleepiness in both groups. The CD-induced prolactin increase significantly correlated with CD-induced sleepiness but not with CD-induced mood and anxiety symptoms. CD-induced sleepiness correlated with CD-induced increases in metabolism in the medial and orbital frontal cortex, bilateral superior temporal cortex, left insula, cingulate motor area and in the vicinity of the periaqueductal gray. This study suggests that the association between dopamine depletion and sleepiness is independent of the brain reward system and the risk for depression. The visceromotor system, the cingulate motor area, the periaqueductal gray and the caudal hypothalamus may mediate the impact of the dopaminergic system on regulation of wakefulness and sleep. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved) (journal abstract)

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Vaccines, Medicare, Minorities and More: New Reports From the National Academies Press

November 1, 2011

Check out these new titles and prepublications available from The National Academies Press (http://www.nap.edu/). All NAP titles can be read online or downloaded in PDF format free of charge! NAP publishes authoritative reports issued by the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, the Institute of Medicine, and the National Research Council.

Adverse Effects of Vaccines: Evidence and Causality (prepublication), Board on Population Health and Public Health Practice, edited by Kathleen Stratton, Andrew Ford, Erin Rusch, and Ellen Wright Clayton

Early Childhood Obesity Prevention Policies (2011), Institute of Medicine, edited by Leann L. Birch, Lynn Parker, and Annina Burns

Expanding Underrepresented Minority Participation: America’s Science and Technology Talent at the Crossroads (2011), Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy

Geographic Adjustment in Medicare Payment: Phase I: Improving Accuracy (prepublication), Second Edition, Board on Health Care Services

The Health of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender People: Building a Foundation for Better Understanding (2011), Board on the Health of Select Populations

Faculty Publication: Chalmers, Copeland, Hester, Fields, Gardner

October 31, 2011

Chalmers, L. J., Copeland, K. C., Hester, C. N., Fields, D. A., & Gardner, A. W. (2011). Paradoxical increase in arterial compliance in obese pubertal children. [Article]. Angiology, 62(7), 565-570. doi: 10.1177/0003319711399117

We determined whether arterial compliance measured by pulse wave analysis is impaired in obese pubertal children compared to normal weight controls, and assessed whether arterial compliance is associated with ambulatory activity. Body fat percentage was significantly different between the normal (n = 33) and obese (n = 34) participants (P < .001). Large (P = .012) and small (P < .001) arterial compliance were lower in the normal-weight group. After adjusting for height, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, race, sex, and Tanner stage, large arterial compliance was no longer different between groups (P = .066), whereas small arterial compliance remained higher in the obese group (P < .001). Obese pubertal children have paradoxically increased small arterial compliance compared to that of normal weight children, even after adjusting for height, blood pressure, race, sex, and Tanner stage. Thus, obesity in adolescence is not associated with impairments in small arterial compliance. [ABSTRACT FROM PUBLISHER]

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Faculty Publication: Fox et al.

October 10, 2011

Mahoney, J. F., Fox, M. D., & Chheda, S. G. (2011). Overcoming challenges to integrating public and population health into medical curricula. [Article]. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 41(4), S170-S175. doi: 10.1016/j.amepre.2011.06.025

Integrating public health into medical curricula poses a substantial challenge to educators. However, the needs of trainees and the population requirements of accrediting bodies provide a compelling call to action to improve how tomorrow”s medical practitioners are prepared to incorporate public health into their practices. This article provides insights about the nature of the challenges, and it identifies opportunities and practical approaches to integrating public health content into medical school curricula. The paper incorporates authors” opinions with a synthesis of the discussions from a workshop at the 2010 “Patients and Populations: Public Health in Medical Education” conference.

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Faculty Publication: Scott, Weidner, Synovitz, Knight, Steinheider, Shortridge, Lee, Lamb

August 27, 2011

Scott, R., Weidner, V., Synovitz, C., Knight, D., Steinheider, B., Shortridge, A., Lee, L., & Lamb, J. (2011). Development of interprofessional simulation to improve team dynamics. IMSH: International Meeting on Simulation in Healthcare Conference Proceedings, 344.

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Faculty Publication: Tan, Taylor, Coburn, Marino, Van de Wiele, Teague

August 9, 2011

Tan, C., Taylor, A. A., Coburn, M. Z., Marino, J. H., Van De Wiele, C. J., & Teague, T. K. (2011). Ten-color flow cytometry reveals distinct patterns of expression of cd124 and cd126 by developing thymocytes. [Article]. BMC Immunology, 12(1), 36-44. doi: 10.1186/1471-2172-12-36

Background: We have developed a 12-parameter/10-color flow cytometric staining method for the simultaneous detection and characterization of 21 mouse thymocyte subpopulations that represent discreet stages of T cell development. To demonstrate the utility of this method, we assessed cytokine receptor expression on mouse thymocyte subsets. These experiments revealed distinct patterns of surface expression of receptors for the cytokines IL-4 and IL-6. Results: The IL-4 receptor α chain (CD124) was highly expressed on the earliest thymocyte subsets, then downregulated prior to T cell receptor β-selection and finally upregulated in the CD4/CD8 double positive cells prior to positive selection. The IL-6 receptor α chain (CD126) showed a different pattern of expression. It was expressed on the most mature subsets within the CD4 and CD8 single positive (SP) compartments and was absent on all other thymocytes with the exception of a very small cKit<sup>-</sup>CD4<sup>-</sup>CD8<sup>-</sup> population. Intracellular staining of SP thymocytes for phosphorylated STAT-1 demonstrated that IL-6 signaling was confined to the most mature SP subsets. Conclusions: This 12-parameter staining methodology uses only commercially available fluorochrome-coupled monoclonal antibodies and therefore could be employed by any investigator with access to a 4-laser flow cytometer. This novel staining scheme allowed us to easily phenotype thymocyte subpopulations that span across development, from the early thymic progenitors (ETPs) to the most mature subsets of the CD4 and CD8 single positive populations.

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Faculty Publication: Drevets, Murray, Wise

July 28, 2011

Murray, E. A., Wise, S. P., & Drevets, W. C. (2011). Localization of dysfunction in major depressive disorder: Prefrontal cortex and amygdala. Biological Psychiatry, 69(12), e43-e54. doi: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2010.09.041

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